ESSAY on the following 5 questions. 1. What new issues of consumer and business protection have arisen from the increasing use of the Internet and other technology? 2. What advantages does self-regulation have over government regulations? Are there ways in which government regulations are superior? Explain. 3. What are some ways that businesses can influence the government? 4. How can a strong compliance program act as a buffer to keep employees from committing crimes and protect the company’s reputation? What are the key elements of the program? 5. Why did Congress enact the Sarbanes-Oxley Act? What are the major provisions and benefits of the Act?

ESSAY on the following 5 questions.

1. What new issues of consumer and business protection have arisen from the increasing use of the Internet and other technology?

2. What advantages does self-regulation have over government regulations? Are there ways in which government regulations are superior? Explain.

3. What are some ways that businesses can influence the government?

4. How can a strong compliance program act as a buffer to keep employees from committing crimes and protect the company’s reputation? What are the key elements of the program?

5. Why did Congress enact the Sarbanes-Oxley Act? What are the major provisions and benefits of the Act?

How did Emily Dickinson poems change throughout her life? Must Include work cited and citations. Must include a Primary source written by the poet and secondary source written by someone else about the poet. Must be about “How did Emily Dickinsons poems change throughout her life?” Include a thesis statement and supporting details for each body paragraph. Must include a Introduction, 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion. And must list the name of the poems for the supporting details.

How did Emily Dickinson poems change throughout her life?
Must Include work cited and citations. Must include a Primary source written by the poet and secondary source written by someone else about the poet. Must be about “How did Emily Dickinsons poems change throughout her life?” Include a thesis statement and supporting details for each body paragraph. Must include a Introduction, 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion. And must list the name of the poems for the supporting details.

Length: 2,250 words +/-10% (= 2,025-2,475 words) excluding title page and bibliographic references. In Assignment, your task is to select and analyse a Key Word in Marketing. Select ONE of the following Key Words in Marketing:  Anti-Branding  Brand Communities  Brand Equity  Cause-Related Marketing  Consumer Boycotts  Consumer Culture Theory (CCT)  Critical Marketing  Customer Relationship Management  Digital Marketing  Experience Economy  Macromarketing  Marketing Rationalization  Political Marketing  Positioning (as P in STP)  Product Placement  Prosumption  Public Service Announcements  Relationship Marketing  Segmentation (as S in STP)  Service-Dominant Logic  Wine Marketing Most, but not all of the listed Key Words in Marketing, feature in either the lectures by the course coordinator or one of the guest lectures. Collecting Relevant Literature: Your assessment will include your level of awareness of relevant literature. This means identifying key writers and any dilemmas or debates associated with your selected Key Word in Marketing. There is an expectation of at least a half-dozen relevant articles (or other sources) being used to support your discussion/analysis. The ‘Reading List’ is not exhaustive, but may also offer suggestions. Essay Title: Create an essay title by using the Key Word in Marketing you have selected. This should assist in organizing your initial thoughts. Though the essay title appears at the beginning of the document, it is likely you will need to edit the first attempt at a title. Your thoughts will evolve on how to approach and analyse the selected Key Word in Marketing.  Main Body: This can be arranged in a manner to help address the essay title. There are some points to consider, as part of a full response:  A working definition or description of the Key Word in Marketing you have selected should appear near the outset.  What does the Key Word in Marketing mean? Where is it located in marketing?  How, when, and why did your Key Word in Marketing emerge?  How, when, and why is your Key Word in Marketing used? In addition to drawing on the relevant literature, examples are useful. Diagrams or other visual material can be used to support a response.  Reading List Contact the course coordinator d.chong@rhul.ac.uk if you encounter difficulties in accessing any of the items. You are likely to encounter some of the same items in Y2 and Y3. Aaker, D. (2004), “Leveraging the Corporate Brand,” California Management Review 46(3): 6-18. Aaker, D. and Joachimsthaler, E. (1999), “The Lure of Global Branding,” Harvard Business Review 77 (Nov/Dec): 137-144. Alderson, W. and Cox, R. (1948), “Towards a Theory of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 13(2): 137-152. Andreasen, A. (1982), “Nonprofits: Check Your Attention to Customers,” Harvard Business Review (May/June): 105-110. Andreasen, A. (1994), “Social Marketing: Its Definition and Domain,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 13(1): 108-114. Andreasen, A. (1996), “Profits for Nonprofits: Find a Corporate Partner,” Harvard Business Review (Nov/Dec): 47-56. Araujo, L., Finch, J., and Kjellberg, H., eds. (2010), Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arndt, J. (1983), “The Political Economy Paradigm: Foundation for Theory Building in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 44-54. Arnould, E.J. and Thompson, C.J. (2005), “Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research,” Journal of Consumer Research 31(4): 868-882. Balmer, J. M.T. and Gray, E.R. (2003), “Corporate Brands: What Are They? What of Them?,” European Journal of Marketing 37(7/8): 972-997. Bagozzi, R. (1975), “Marketing as Exchange,” Journal of Marketing (October): 32- 39. Bagozzi, Richard P. and Paul Warshaw (1990), “Trying to Consume,” Journal of Consumer Research 17(2): 127-140. Bartels, R. (1967), “A Model for Ethics in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 31(1): 20-2 Bartels, R. (1974), “The Identity Crisis in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 38 (October): 73-76. Bartels, R. and Jenkins, R. (1977), “Macromarketing,” Journal of Marketing 41 (October): 17-20. Baumol, W. (1957), “On the Role of Marketing Theory,” Journal of Marketing (April): 413-418. Belk, R. (1988), “Possessions and the Extended Self,” Journal of Consumer Research (September): 139-168. Berger, J. (1972), Ways of Seeing. London: BBC and Penguin Books. Berry, L.L. (1995), “Relationship Marketing of Services,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 23 (Fall): 346-5. Borden, N. (1964), “The Concept of the Marketing Mix,” Journal of Advertising Research 4(2): 2-7. Brown, S. (1995), Postmodern Marketing. London: Routledge. Brown, S. (1999), “Marketing and Literature – The Anxiety of Academic Influence,” Journal of Marketing 63(1): 1-15. Brown, S., Hirschman, E. and Maclaren, P. (2001), “Always Historicize! Researching Marketing History in a Post-Historical Epoch,” Marketing Theory 1(1): 49-90.  Buzell, R.D. (1964), “Is Marketing a Science?,” Harvard Business Review (Jan/Feb): 32-41. Cayla, J. and Eckhardt, G. (2008), “Asian Brands and the Shaping of a Transnational Imagined Community,” Journal of Consumer Research 35 (August): 216-230. Christopher, M., Payne, A. and Ballantyne, D. (1991), Relationship Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann. Converse, P.D. (1945), “The Development of the Science of Marketing – An Exploratory Survey,” Journal of Marketing 10 (July): 14-23. Day, G.S. and Wensley, R. (1983), “Marketing Theory with a Strategic Orientation,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 79-89. De Chernatony, L. (1999), “Brand Management Through Narrowing the Gap Between Brand Identity and Brand Reputation,” Journal of Marketing Management 15: 157-179. Dibb, S. and Simkin, L. (2009), Bridging the Segmentation Theory/Practice Divide,” Journal of Marketing Management 25(3/4): 219-225. [Note this is a special issue on segmentation.] Drucker, P. (1954), The Practice of Management. New York. http://www.harpercollins.com/browseinside/index.aspx?isbn13=9780060878979. Drucker, P. (1958), “Marketing and Economic Development,” Journal of Marketing 23 (January): 252-259. Ellis, N., Fitchett, J., Higgins, M., Jack, G., Lim, M., Saren, M., and Tadajewski, M. (2010), Marketing: A Critical Textbook. London: Sage. Fisk, G. (1973), “Criteria for a Theory of Responsible Consumption,” Journal of Marketing 37(1): 24-31. Fournier, S. (1998), “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” Journal of Consume Research 24 (March): 343-373. Gaski, J. (1999), “Does Marketing Ethics Really Have Anything to Say? A Critical Commentary on the Literature,” Journal of Business Ethics 18 (February): 315- 334. Grafton-Small, R. and Linstead, S. (1989), “Advertisements as Artefacts: Everyday Understanding and the Creative Consumer,” International Journal of Advertising 8(3): 205-218. Grönroos, C. (1990), “Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service Contexts: The Marketing and Organizational Behaviour Interface,” Journal of Business Research 20(1): 3-11. Grönroos, C. (1994), “Quo Vadis, Marketing?: Towards a Relationship Marketing Paradigm,” Journal of Marketing Management 10(5): 347-360. Hackley, C. (2009), Marketing: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage. Hatch, M.J and Schultz, M. (2003), “Bringing the Corporation into Corporate Branding”, European Journal of Marketing 37(7/8): 1041-1064. Hirschman, E. (1991), “Secular Morality and the Dark Side of Consumer Behavior: Or How Semiotics Saved My Life,” Advances in Consumer Research 18: 1-4. Hirschman, E. and Holbrook, M. (1982), “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasises, Feelings and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research 9 (September): 245-256. Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T., eds. (1983), The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Holbrook, M.B. (1987), “What is Consumer Research?,” Journal of Consumer Research 14 (June): 128-132. Hollander, S.C. (1960), “The Wheel of Retailing,” Journal of Marketing 25 (July): 37-42. Holt, D. (1995), “How Consumers Consume: A Typology of Consumption Practice,” Journal of Consumer Research 22 (June): 1-16. Holt, D. (2002), “Why Do Brands Cause Trouble? A Dialectical Theory of Consumer Culture and Branding,” Journal of Consumer Research 29 (June): 70-90. Holt, D. (2003), “What Becomes an Icon Most,” Harvard Business Review 81 (March): 43-49. Holt, D., Quelch, J., and Taylor, E. (2004), “How Global Brands Compete,” Harvard Business Review 82 (September): 68-75. Howard, J.A. (1983), “The Marketing Theory of the Firm,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 90-100. Hunt, S.D. (1971), “The Morphology of Theory and the General Theory of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 35 (April): 65-68. Hunt, S.D. (1976), “The Nature and Scope of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 40 (July): 17-28. Hunt, S.D. (1981), “Macromarketing as a Multidimensional Concept,” Journal of Macromarketing 1 (Spring): 7-8. Hunt, S.D. and Morgan, R.D. (1995), “The Comparative Advantage Theory of Competition,” Journal of Marketing 51 (April): 1-18. Hunt, S.D. (1983), “General Theories and the Fundamental Explananda of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 9-17. Judd, R.C. (1969), “The Case for Redefining Services,” Journal of Marketing 28 (January): 58-59. Hunt, S.D. and Vitell, S. (1986), “A General Theory of Marketing Ethics,” Journal of Macromarketing 6(1): 6-15. Kaish, S. (1967), “Cognitive Dissonance and the Classification of Consumer Goods,” Journal of Marketing 31 (October): 28-31. Keith, R.J. (1960), “The Marketing Revolution,” Journal of Marketing 24(1): 35-38. Keller, K.L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity,” Journal of Marketing, 57(1): 1-22. Kotler, P. (1972), “The Generic Concept of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing (April): 46-54. Kotler, P. (1979), “Strategies for Introducing Marketing into Nonprofit Organizations,” Journal of Marketing (January): 10-15. Kotler, P. and Levy, S. (1969), “Broadening the Concept of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing (January): 10-15. Kotler, P. and Zaltman, G. (1971), “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change,” Journal of Marketing 35 (July): 3-12. Kozinets, R. (2001), “Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the Meanings of Star Trek’s Culture of Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research 28 (June): 67-88. Kozinets, R. (2002), “The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netography for Marketing Research in Online Communities,” Journal of Marketing Research 39(1): 61-72. Laczniak, G. (1983), “Frameworks for analysing Marketing Ethics,” Journal of Macromarketing 3(1): 7-18. Lazer, W. (1969), “Marketing’s Changing Social Relationships,” Journal of Marketing 33 (January): 3-9. Keller, K.L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity,” Journal of Marketing 57(1): 1-22. Keller, K.L., Sternthal, B, and Tybout, A. (2002), “Three Questions You Need to Ask About Your Brand,” Harvard Business Review 80(9): 80-81. Levitt, T. (1956), “The Changing Character of Capitalism,” Harvard Business Review 34 (Jul/Aug): 37-47. Levitt, T. (1958), “The Dangers of Social Responsibility,” Harvard Business Review 36 (Sep/Oct): 41-50. Levitt, T. (1960), “Marketing Myopia,” Harvard Business Review (July/August): 45- 56. Levitt, T. (1965), “Exploit the Product Life Cycle,” Harvard Business Review 43 (Nov/Dec): 81-94. Levitt, T. (1972), “Production-line Approach to Service,” Harvard Business Review 50 (Sep/Oct): 41-52. Levitt, T. (1975), “The Industrialization of Service,” Harvard Business Review 54 (Sep/Oct): 63-74. Levitt, T. (1980), “Marketing Success Through Differentiation – of Anything,” Harvard Business Review 58 (Jan/Feb): 83-91. Levitt, T. (1981), “Marketing Intangible Products and Product Intangibles,” Harvard Business Review 59 (May/Jun): 94-102. Levitt, T. (1983a), “The Globalization of Markets,” Harvard Business Review 61 (May/Jun): 92-102. Levitt, T. (1983b), “After the Sale is Over,” Harvard Business Review 61(Sep/Oct): 87-93. Levitt, T. (1988), “The pluralization of consumption,” Harvard Business Review 66: 7-8. Levitt, T. (1993), “Advertising: The poetry of becoming,” Harvard Business Review 71 (Mar/Apr): 134-137. Levy, S.J. (1959), “Symbols for Sale,” Harvard Business Review 47 (Jul/Aug): 117- 124. Lovelock, C.H. (1981), “Classifying Services to Gain Strategic Marketing Insight,” Journal of Marketing 47 (July): 9-20. Luck, D.J. (1959), “On the Nature of Specialty Goods,” Journal of Marketing 24 (July): 61-64. Luck, D.J. (1969), “Broadening the Concept of Marketing – Too Far,” Journal of Marketing 33 (July): 53-55. Luck, D.J. (1974), “Social Marketing: Confusion Compounded,” Journal of Marketing 38 (October): 70-71. Maslow, A.H. (1943), “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review (July): 370-396. McKenna, R. (1991), “Marketing Is Everything,” Harvard Business Review 69 (Jan/Feb): 65-80. Mick, D.G. (1986), “Consumer Research and Semiotics: Exploring the Morphology of Signs, Symbols and Significance,” Journal of Consumer Research (September): 196-213. Mintzberg, H. (1984), “Who Should Control the Corporation?,” California Management Review 27(1): 90-115. Monbiot, G. (2001), “Privatising Our Minds,” Guardian (31 July). http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2001/07/31/privatising-our-minds/. Möller, K. (2006), “Comment on: ‘The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing by E. Constantinides,” Journal of Marketing Management 22; 439-450.  Morgan, R.M. and Hunt, S.D. (1994), “The Commitment-Trust of Relationship Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 58(3): 20-38. Nicosia, F.M. and Mayer, R.N. (1976), “Toward a Sociology of Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research 3: 65-75. Nelson, P.J. (1970), “Information and Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Political Economy 78 (Mar/Apr): 311-329. Nelson, P.J. (1974), “Advertising as Information,” Journal of Political Economy 82 (Jul/Aug): 729-754. Ogilvy, D. (2007; 1983 original), Ogilvy on Advertising. London: Prion. O’Shaughnessy, J. and O’Shaughnessy, N. (2000), “Treating the Nation as a Brand: Some Neglected Issues,” Journal of Macromarketing (June): 56-64. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., and Berry, L.L. (1985), “A Conceptual Model of service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research,” Journal of Marketing 49 (Fall): 41-50. Prahalad, C.K. (2004), “The Cocreation of Value,” Journal of Marketing 68 (1): 23. Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2000), “Co-opting Customer Competence,” Harvard Business Review 78 (Jan/Feb): 79-87. Prahalad, C.K. and Lieberthal, K. (2003), “The End of Corporate Imperialism,” Harvard Business Review 81 (August): 109-117. Press, M. and Arnould, E. (2009), “Constraints on Sustainable Energy Consumption: Market System and Public Policy Challenges and Opportunities,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 28(1): 102-113. Prothero, A. and Fichette, J. (2000), “Greening Capitalism: Opportunities for a Green Commodity,” Journal of Macromarketing 20(1): 46-55. Reibstein, D.J., Day, G., and Wind, J. (2009), “Is Marketing Academia Losing Its Way?,” Journal of Marketing 73 (July): 1-3. Ries, A. and Trout, J. (1981), Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rothschild, M. (1979), “Marketing Communications in Nonbusiness Situations or Why It’s So Hard to Sell Brotherhood Like Soap,” Journal of Marketing 43: 11-20. Shapiro, B. (1973), “Marketing for nonprofit organizations,” Harvard Business Review (Sep/Oct): 123-132. Smith, W.R. (1956), “Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies,” Journal of Marketing 21 (July): 3-8. Steiner, R.L. (1976), “The Prejudice Against Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 40 (July): 2-42. Stern, B. (1995), “Consumer Myths: Frye’s Taxonomy and the Structural Analysis of Consumption Text,” Journal of Consumer Research 22 (September): 165-186. Stern, B. (1990), “Literary Criticism and the History of Marketing Thought: A New Perspective on ‘Reading’ Marketing Theory,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 18 (Fall): 329-336. Stigler, G. (1961), “The Economics of Information,” Journal of Political Economy 69 (June): 213-224. Tadajewski, M. (2006), “The Ordering of Marketing Theory: The Influence of McCarthyism and the Cold War,” Marketing Theory 6(2): 163-199. Tadajewski, M. (2009), “The Foundations of Relationship Marketing: Reciprocity and Trade Relations,” Marketing Theory 9(1): 11-40. Tadajewski, M. and MacLaran, P. eds. (2009), Critical Marketing Studies. 3 vols. London; Sage. http://www.uk.sagepub.com/refbooks/Book233060  Tadajewski, M. and Saren, M. (2009), “Rethinking relationship marketing,” Journal of Macromarketing 29(2): 193-206. Thaler, R. (1985), “Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice,” Marketing Science (Summer): 199-214. Thaler, R. (1999), “Mental Accounting Matters,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 13/3: 183-206. Thompson, C.J. (2004), “Marketplace Mythology and Discourses of Power,” Journal of Consumer Research 31 (June), 162–80. Thompson, C.J. (1995), “A Contextualist Proposal for the Conceptualization and Study of Marketing Ethics,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 14(1): 177- 191. Thompson, C.J. and Arsel, Z (2004), “The Starbucks Brandscape and Consumers’ (Anticorporate) Experiences of Glocalization,” Journal of Consumer Research 31 (3): 631-642. Twitchell, J. (2004), “An English Teacher Looks at Branding,” Journal of Consumer Research 31(2): 484-489. Twitchell, J. (2005), “Higher Ed, Inc.,” in Essays in Perspective. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Effective Governance in Higher Education. http://www.goacta.org/images/download/higher_ed_inc.pdf Underhill, P. (1999), Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. New York: Simon and Schuster. Van Waterschoot, W. and Van den Bulte, C. (1992), “The 4P Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited,” Journal of Marketing 56(1): 83-93. Vargo, S. and Lusch, R.F. (2004a), “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 68(1): 1-17. Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R.F. (2004b), “The Four Service Marketing Myths,” Journal of Service Research 6(4): 324-335. Vargo, S. and Lusch, R.F. (2008a), “Service-Dominant Logic: Continuing the Evolution,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (Spring): 1-10. Vargo, S. and Lusch, R.F. (2008b), “Why Service?” Journal of Marketing Science 36 (Spring): 25-38. Webster, F.E. Jr (1992), “The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporation,” Journal of Marketing 56 (October): 1-17. Wilkie, W. and Moore, E. (1999), “Marketing’s Contributions to Society,” Journal of Marketing 63 (Special Issue): 198-218. Wilkie, W. and Moore, E. (2003), “Scholarly Research in Marketing: Exploring the Four Eras of Thought Development,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 22 (Fall): 116-146. Williamson, J. (1978), Decoding Advertisements: Ideology and Meaning in Advertising. London: Marion Boyars. Witkowski, T. (1989), “History’s Place in the Marketing Curriculum,” Journal of Marketing Education (Summer): 54-57. Yadav, M.S. (2010), “The Decline of Conceptual Articles and Implications for Knowledge Development,” Journal of Marketing 74 (January): 1-20. Yankelovich, D. and Meer, D. (2006), “Rediscovering Market Segmentation,” Harvard Business Review 84 (June): 141-145.

Length: 2,250 words +/-10% (= 2,025-2,475 words) excluding title page and bibliographic references.
In Assignment, your task is to select and analyse a Key Word in Marketing. Select ONE of the following Key Words in Marketing:
 Anti-Branding
 Brand Communities
 Brand Equity
 Cause-Related Marketing
 Consumer Boycotts
 Consumer Culture Theory
(CCT)
 Critical Marketing
 Customer Relationship
Management
 Digital Marketing
 Experience Economy
 Macromarketing
 Marketing Rationalization
 Political Marketing
 Positioning (as P in STP)
 Product Placement
 Prosumption
 Public Service Announcements  Relationship Marketing
 Segmentation (as S in STP)
 Service-Dominant Logic
 Wine Marketing
Most, but not all of the listed Key Words in Marketing, feature in either the lectures by the course coordinator or one of the guest lectures.
Collecting Relevant Literature: Your assessment will include your level of awareness of relevant literature. This means identifying key writers and any dilemmas or debates associated with your selected Key Word in Marketing. There is an expectation of at least a half-dozen relevant articles (or other sources) being used to support your discussion/analysis. The ‘Reading List’ is not exhaustive, but may also offer suggestions.
Essay Title: Create an essay title by using the Key Word in Marketing you have selected. This should assist in organizing your initial thoughts. Though the essay title appears at the beginning of the document, it is likely you will need to edit the first attempt at a title. Your thoughts will evolve on how to approach and analyse the selected Key Word in Marketing.

Main Body: This can be arranged in a manner to help address the essay title. There are some points to consider, as part of a full response:
 A working definition or description of the Key Word in Marketing you have selected should appear near the outset.
 What does the Key Word in Marketing mean? Where is it located in marketing?
 How, when, and why did your Key Word in Marketing emerge?
 How, when, and why is your Key Word in Marketing used?
In addition to drawing on the relevant literature, examples are useful. Diagrams or other visual material can be used to support a response.

Reading List
Contact the course coordinator d.chong@rhul.ac.uk if you encounter difficulties in accessing any of the items. You are likely to encounter some of the same items in Y2 and Y3.
Aaker, D. (2004), “Leveraging the Corporate Brand,” California Management Review 46(3): 6-18.
Aaker, D. and Joachimsthaler, E. (1999), “The Lure of Global Branding,” Harvard Business Review 77 (Nov/Dec): 137-144.
Alderson, W. and Cox, R. (1948), “Towards a Theory of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 13(2): 137-152.
Andreasen, A. (1982), “Nonprofits: Check Your Attention to Customers,” Harvard Business Review (May/June): 105-110.
Andreasen, A. (1994), “Social Marketing: Its Definition and Domain,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 13(1): 108-114.
Andreasen, A. (1996), “Profits for Nonprofits: Find a Corporate Partner,” Harvard Business Review (Nov/Dec): 47-56.
Araujo, L., Finch, J., and Kjellberg, H., eds. (2010), Reconnecting Marketing to Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arndt, J. (1983), “The Political Economy Paradigm: Foundation for Theory Building in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 44-54.
Arnould, E.J. and Thompson, C.J. (2005), “Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research,” Journal of Consumer Research 31(4): 868-882.
Balmer, J. M.T. and Gray, E.R. (2003), “Corporate Brands: What Are They? What of Them?,” European Journal of Marketing 37(7/8): 972-997.
Bagozzi, R. (1975), “Marketing as Exchange,” Journal of Marketing (October): 32- 39.
Bagozzi, Richard P. and Paul Warshaw (1990), “Trying to Consume,” Journal of Consumer Research 17(2): 127-140.
Bartels, R. (1967), “A Model for Ethics in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 31(1): 20-2
Bartels, R. (1974), “The Identity Crisis in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing 38 (October): 73-76.
Bartels, R. and Jenkins, R. (1977), “Macromarketing,” Journal of Marketing 41 (October): 17-20.
Baumol, W. (1957), “On the Role of Marketing Theory,” Journal of Marketing (April): 413-418.
Belk, R. (1988), “Possessions and the Extended Self,” Journal of Consumer Research (September): 139-168.
Berger, J. (1972), Ways of Seeing. London: BBC and Penguin Books.
Berry, L.L. (1995), “Relationship Marketing of Services,” Journal of the Academy of
Marketing Science 23 (Fall): 346-5.
Borden, N. (1964), “The Concept of the Marketing Mix,” Journal of Advertising
Research 4(2): 2-7.
Brown, S. (1995), Postmodern Marketing. London: Routledge.
Brown, S. (1999), “Marketing and Literature – The Anxiety of Academic Influence,”
Journal of Marketing 63(1): 1-15.
Brown, S., Hirschman, E. and Maclaren, P. (2001), “Always Historicize! Researching
Marketing History in a Post-Historical Epoch,” Marketing Theory 1(1): 49-90.

Buzell, R.D. (1964), “Is Marketing a Science?,” Harvard Business Review (Jan/Feb): 32-41.
Cayla, J. and Eckhardt, G. (2008), “Asian Brands and the Shaping of a Transnational Imagined Community,” Journal of Consumer Research 35 (August): 216-230.
Christopher, M., Payne, A. and Ballantyne, D. (1991), Relationship Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann.
Converse, P.D. (1945), “The Development of the Science of Marketing – An Exploratory Survey,” Journal of Marketing 10 (July): 14-23.
Day, G.S. and Wensley, R. (1983), “Marketing Theory with a Strategic Orientation,” Journal of Marketing 47 (Fall): 79-89.
De Chernatony, L. (1999), “Brand Management Through Narrowing the Gap Between Brand Identity and Brand Reputation,” Journal of Marketing Management 15: 157-179.
Dibb, S. and Simkin, L. (2009), Bridging the Segmentation Theory/Practice Divide,” Journal of Marketing Management 25(3/4): 219-225. [Note this is a special issue on segmentation.]
Drucker, P. (1954), The Practice of Management. New York. http://www.harpercollins.com/browseinside/index.aspx?isbn13=9780060878979.
Drucker, P. (1958), “Marketing and Economic Development,” Journal of Marketing 23 (January): 252-259.
Ellis, N., Fitchett, J., Higgins, M., Jack, G., Lim, M., Saren, M., and Tadajewski, M. (2010), Marketing: A Critical Textbook. London: Sage.
Fisk, G. (1973), “Criteria for a Theory of Responsible Consumption,” Journal of Marketing 37(1): 24-31.
Fournier, S. (1998), “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” Journal of Consume Research 24 (March): 343-373.
Gaski, J. (1999), “Does Marketing Ethics Really Have Anything to Say? A Critical Commentary on the Literature,” Journal of Business Ethics 18 (February): 315- 334.
Grafton-Small, R. and Linstead, S. (1989), “Advertisements as Artefacts: Everyday Understanding and the Creative Consumer,” International Journal of Advertising 8(3): 205-218.
Grönroos, C. (1990), “Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service Contexts: The Marketing and Organizational Behaviour Interface,” Journal of Business Research 20(1): 3-11.
Grönroos, C. (1994), “Quo Vadis, Marketing?: Towards a Relationship Marketing Paradigm,” Journal of Marketing Management 10(5): 347-360.
Hackley, C. (2009), Marketing: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage. Hatch, M.J and Schultz, M. (2003), “Bringing the Corporation into Corporate
Branding”, European Journal of Marketing 37(7/8): 1041-1064.
Hirschman, E. (1991), “Secular Morality and the Dark Side of Consumer Behavior:
Or How Semiotics Saved My Life,” Advances in Consumer Research 18: 1-4. Hirschman, E. and Holbrook, M. (1982), “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption:
Consumer Fantasises, Feelings and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research 9
(September): 245-256.
Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T., eds. (1983), The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge:
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Entrepreneurial businesses are attractive employers for workers for many reasons. With this in mind, consider how you could recruit and choose employees. First, imagine that you are a small business owner. Next, in your discussion post, describe three sources you could use for recruiting employees. Also describe three steps you would take to evaluate and select employees. Length Requirement: You should write a brief description of each of the three recruiting sources. Add a brief description of each of the three steps you would take to evaluate and select employees. List any sources in APA format.

Entrepreneurial businesses are attractive employers for workers for many reasons. With this in mind, consider how you could recruit and choose employees.
First, imagine that you are a small business owner. Next, in your discussion post, describe three sources you could use for recruiting employees. Also describe three steps you would take to evaluate and select employees.
Length Requirement: You should write a brief description of each of the three recruiting sources. Add a brief description of each of the three steps you would take to evaluate and select employees.
List any sources in APA format.

Discuss the basis for communication differences in the workplace between men and women. Provide at least two examples of negative non-verbal communication. Discuss ways that customer service employees can ensure they do not send negative non-verbal messages when communicating with customers. Of all the elements that constitute body language, which three would you describe as the most important when serving customers? Why? What societal factors make it difficult for organizations to establish a proper dress code in today’s workplace? Your paper should be 2 to 3 pages in length. APA Style

Discuss the basis for communication differences in the workplace between men and women.
Provide at least two examples of negative non-verbal communication. Discuss ways that customer service employees can ensure they do not send negative non-verbal messages when communicating with customers.
Of all the elements that constitute body language, which three would you describe as the most important when serving customers? Why?
What societal factors make it difficult for organizations to establish a proper dress code in today’s workplace?
Your paper should be 2 to 3 pages in length.
APA Style

CASE STUDY Project 11.5 Enforcing a Dress Code Cecilia recently went to work for a telecommunications firm in San Francisco as the receptionist. In the first week, several other employees went out of their way to go through the lobby just to see her. She is very attractive, and everyone soon learned she was a former model at local trade shows. Cecilia’s image started to create problems within the company. Though Cecilia was a nice person and didn’t appear conceited, her appearance was a distraction to the organization. The office manager discovered that work had slowed down since Cecilia was hired. For instance, male sales reps were stopping by and spending time chatting with her; female workers were making catty remarks behind her back and seemed to be spending more time having negative conversations. Three comments overheard were, “She’s too perfect,” “Cecilia wears way too much makeup,” and “She dresses too nice for this place.” Make notes regarding what is happening here. Include the roles in this situation of the receptionist, visitors to the front lobby, other employees, and the office manager. Each person or group is playing a role. Using the questions below as a guide, be prepared to discuss how you would resolve this situation. 1. Do you think the office manager should view this problem as one that will work itself out with time? Why or why not? 2. What steps should be taken to get work back on track? What should the manager say to the other workers? Is Cecilia to blame at all in this situation?

CASE STUDY
Project 11.5 Enforcing a Dress Code
Cecilia recently went to work for a telecommunications firm in San Francisco as the
receptionist. In the first week, several other employees went out of their way to go
through the lobby just to see her. She is very attractive, and everyone soon learned she
was a former model at local trade shows.
Cecilia’s image started to create problems within the company. Though Cecilia was a nice
person and didn’t appear conceited, her appearance was a distraction to the organization.
The office manager discovered that work had slowed down since Cecilia was hired. For
instance, male sales reps were stopping by and spending time chatting with her; female
workers were making catty remarks behind her back and seemed to be spending more
time having negative conversations. Three comments overheard were, “She’s too perfect,”
“Cecilia wears way too much makeup,” and “She dresses too nice for this place.”
Make notes regarding what is happening here. Include the roles in this situation of
the receptionist, visitors to the front lobby, other employees, and the office manager.
Each person or group is playing a role. Using the questions below as a guide, be
prepared to discuss how you would resolve this situation.
1. Do you think the office manager should view this problem as one that will work itself out with time? Why or why not?
2. What steps should be taken to get work back on track? What should the manager say to the other workers? Is
Cecilia to blame at all in this situation?

Overview of Assignment: Identifying Peripheral and Central Route Persuasion in Advertising Examples of central and peripheral route persuasion appear daily in media advertisements. Some television, magazine, or newspaper advertisements rely primarily on central route processes, whereas others rely on peripheral route processes to change attitudes. The goal of this assignment is for you to find examples of ads that use each route to persuasion and explain how each was constructed to achieve its persuasion goals. To prepare for this assignment: • Review Chapter 5 in the course text, paying particular attention to examples of central and peripheral route persuasion in media advertisements. • Find a magazine or newspaper advertisement that represents a good example of peripheral route persuasion. • Reflect on the factors that reduce your motivation and/or ability to process the content of the advertisement. • Think about a source cue, heuristic, or emotion that is present and the positive cognitive responses it generates to change attitudes. • Consider whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior. • Next, find a magazine or newspaper advertisement that represents a good example of central route persuasion. • Consider the factors that enhance your motivation and ability to process the content of the advertisement. Also consider the strongest and weakest arguments used in the message. • Reflect on whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior. The assignment (2 pages): APA style format, No Plagiarism and must be cited with references provided. All questions must be answered fully and done according to course rubrics for proper grading by Professor. Questions can be inserted within the assignment and full answers beneath them. Thank you. (1).Describe the magazine or newspaper advertisement you found that offers an example of Peripheral Route Persuasion. (2).Identify the factors that reduce your motivation and/or ability to process the content of the advertisement. (3).Describe a source cue, heuristic, or emotion that is present and the positive cognitive responses it generates to change attitudes. (4).Finally, explain whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior. (5).Describe the magazine or newspaper advertisement you found that represents a good example of Central Route Persuasion. (6).Identify the factors that enhance your motivation and ability to process the content of the advertisement. Describe the strongest and weakest arguments used in the message. (7).Finally, explain whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior. Support your Application Assignment with references. Application Assignment and Course Writing Rubrics There are six primary quality indicators for this written assignment. This assignment will be graded according to these indicators (Responsiveness, Content, Quality, Research, Scholarship, and Professional Style). Resources: Course Text: Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives Chapter 5, “To Think or Not To Think” (pp. 81–116)

Overview of Assignment: Identifying Peripheral and Central Route Persuasion in Advertising
Examples of central and peripheral route persuasion appear daily in media advertisements. Some television, magazine, or newspaper advertisements rely primarily on central route processes, whereas others rely on peripheral route processes to change attitudes. The goal of this assignment is for you to find examples of ads that use each route to persuasion and explain how each was constructed to achieve its persuasion goals.
To prepare for this assignment:
• Review Chapter 5 in the course text, paying particular attention to examples of central and peripheral route persuasion in media advertisements.
• Find a magazine or newspaper advertisement that represents a good example of peripheral route persuasion.
• Reflect on the factors that reduce your motivation and/or ability to process the content of the advertisement.
• Think about a source cue, heuristic, or emotion that is present and the positive cognitive responses it generates to change attitudes.
• Consider whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior.
• Next, find a magazine or newspaper advertisement that represents a good example of central route persuasion.
• Consider the factors that enhance your motivation and ability to process the content of the advertisement. Also consider the strongest and weakest arguments used in the message.
• Reflect on whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior.

The assignment (2 pages): APA style format, No Plagiarism and must be cited with references provided. All questions must be answered fully and done according to course rubrics for proper grading by Professor. Questions can be inserted within the assignment and full answers beneath them. Thank you.
(1).Describe the magazine or newspaper advertisement you found that offers an example of Peripheral Route Persuasion.
(2).Identify the factors that reduce your motivation and/or ability to process the content of the advertisement.
(3).Describe a source cue, heuristic, or emotion that is present and the positive cognitive responses it generates to change attitudes.
(4).Finally, explain whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior.

(5).Describe the magazine or newspaper advertisement you found that represents a good example of Central Route Persuasion.
(6).Identify the factors that enhance your motivation and ability to process the content of the advertisement. Describe the strongest and weakest arguments used in the message.
(7).Finally, explain whether you think the ad will change attitudes and if it will have any effect on behavior.
Support your Application Assignment with references.
Application Assignment and Course Writing Rubrics
There are six primary quality indicators for this written assignment. This assignment will be graded according to these indicators (Responsiveness, Content, Quality, Research, Scholarship, and Professional Style).
Resources:
Course Text: Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives
Chapter 5, “To Think or Not To Think” (pp. 81–116)

Consider the following scenario: • Within your organization, upper management has decided that your department must be downsized, and it is up to each manager to begin preparing his or her team for the changes. One of the changes to be addressed involves motivational techniques. As manager, you must research and understand various motivational methods to lead and implement change within your area. Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss the motivational methods you would use when having to introduce such a significant change to your organization. Address the following: • Which three motivational methods would you, as a manager, apply? • What theoretical concepts from your reading support the points you are making? Cite a minimum of three outside sources to support your position. Format your paper consistent with 6th edition APA guidelines.

Consider the following scenario:

• Within your organization, upper management has decided that your department must be downsized, and it is up to each manager to begin preparing his or her team for the changes. One of the changes to be addressed involves motivational techniques. As manager, you must research and understand various motivational methods to lead and implement change within your area.

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss the motivational methods you would use when having to introduce such a significant change to your organization.

Address the following:

• Which three motivational methods would you, as a manager, apply?
• What theoretical concepts from your reading support the points you are making?

Cite a minimum of three outside sources to support your position.

Format your paper consistent with 6th edition APA guidelines.

Interview Health Care Professional 1) Interview a health care leader about a new technology he or she selected, planned for, and implemented. 2) Write a paper of 1,000–1,200 words, from your perspective, on how that process occurred, what happened, what the leader would do again, and what mistakes he or she may have made. 3) Refer to the assigned readings to incorporate specific examples and details into your paper. 4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. 1. Definition, Structure, Content, Use and Impacts of Electronic Health Records: A Review of the Research Literature Read “Definition, Structure, Content, Use and Impacts of Electronic Health Records: A Review of the Research Literature” by Häyrinen, Saranto, and Nykänen, from the International Journal of Medical Informatics (2008). http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2007.09.001 2. The Barriers to Electronic Medical Record Systems and How To Overcome Them Read “The Barriers to Electronic Medical Record Systems and How To Overcome Them” by McDonald, from the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (1997). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC61236/ The Impact of Technology on Clinical and IT Systems Introduction One of the factors driving change in the health care delivery system is the rapidly evolving technology that emerges from research and development. Emerging technologies create rapid and profound change in the delivery system and may have drastic financial impacts. However, adapting new technologies without a clear understanding of what they can do for and to the system is never a good idea. They must be evaluated for their abilities to enhance the quality of care, along with their capacity to drive new revenue in a procedure-based delivery system. Finally, the cost of new technology is highly correlated with how new it is, and whether it is a stand-alone product with no competition. All of these factors combine to make it essential to do careful business and clinical analyses prior to committing to even the most appealing new technology. In this module, we will examine two types of new technology: clinical applications and the electronic medical record (EMR). Clinical Technology In the realm of clinical technology, there are numerous subgroups. In selected subgroups, we will explore examples of new technology that is in the research and development pipeline. Cardiovascular The underlying theme of technology in cardiovascular care is the shift from significantly invasive approaches, such as open cardiac bypass surgery requiring a split sterna surgical approach and the use of a heart lung machine to maintain the patient during surgery, toward minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques. Ultra-wide band radar devices allow the measurement of cardiac output, heart rate, heart rhythm, and patterns of blood flow without any invasion of the body. The device is roughly the size of a deck of cards and can be worn in a shirt pocket without leads or monitor pads. The use of this type of radar-based approach allows noninvasive monitoring without pain or limitation of movement by patients. Another cardiovascular application is the use of bio-absorbable, drug-eluting stents to open coronary arteries. The old technology required a surgical intervention that involved removing an artery from another part of the body and suturing it to the blocked coronary artery to provide a bridge for blood to flow past the blockage. This generally required hours in the operating room, with a patient on a heart bypass machine, and several days to a week in the intensive care unit after surgery. This has been largely replaced by placing stents or coils in the coronary arteries to hold them open. This is done in the cardiac catheterization lab under sedation or light anesthesia and is accomplished by threading a catheter through the arm or leg vein up to the heart and into the artery. However, historically these types of stents could block up again. The newest technology involves placing a bio-absorbable stent that eventually melts into the arterial wall, along with the drug-eluting aspect, which prevents clot formation. While this is a significant improvement from the patient’s perspective, it also comes with a steep premium in cost, at least initially. Cardiac services have traditionally been among the most lucrative services for hospitals and physicians. However, the shift of services from inpatient to outpatient and the marked reductions expected in cardiac surgical volume result in a noticeable decline in patient admission days and overall cardiac revenue for the average hospital. Cardiac surgeons across the country are indicating decreases in volume of 20% to 30% in their patient load. A brand new emerging technology is autologous cell therapy, in which a patient’s own heart muscle cells are cultured from their own adult stem cells and then placed back into the patient’s heart muscle. This process is in clinical trials at present, and if it works as expected, patients will have strengthened heart muscle without the fears of tissue rejection from organ transplants. It will also reduce the need for electromechanical pumps or a full heart transplant. This technology could potentially revolutionize cardiac health care. Oncologic With the growing rate of cancer diagnoses, oncologic care is an area rife with new technology. One new area with great promise is the use of radioactive trace markers to measure the effects of chemotherapy or radiation on tumor growth. Fluorothymidine is being studied as an imaging probe that measures tumor cell proliferation and response to therapies. The ability to do an early assessment of tumor growth and development should provide better outcomes for patients with cancer and reduced expenses from ineffective therapies. Another new technology overcomes the problem of the blood-brain barrier, which prevents chemotherapeutic agents from penetrating the brain. The new technology, acoustic-enhanced drug delivery, uses focused ultrasound to reverse the blocking effects of the blood-brain barrier by agitating the brain tissue to enhance its permeability. This also improves the tumor’s uptake of the drug, with a quicker and more effective response to the chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) Digestive disorders have been diagnosed for years through endoscopy. However, this process requires sedation of the patient. Video capsule technology appeared in 2001, but its diagnostic capability was limited, since the capsule’s movement was not controllable. The newest technology is a robotic capsule that allows the physician to control the movement and orientation of the capsule for better visualization of the GI tract. Once the capsule is positioned properly, it can perform a robotic biopsy or administer a treatment to a specific area with a noninvasive approach. Diagnostic Imaging There are numerous technologies that are emerging in the field of diagnostic imaging. Over the last five years, computed tomography (CT) scans have become three dimensional and capable of imaging thinner slices, giving much greater visual resolution. However, increases in CT imaging have prompted rising concerns about radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which creates images through a magnetic field, is a safer option when radiation exposure is a concern. MRIs can also visualize soft tissue in a way that CT scans cannot. A new technology based on the MRI platform is MRI-guided radiation therapy for tumors. In this approach, the MRI imaging system is combined with three gamma ray sources, which function together as a large robot. The patient is positioned between two magnets, and the gamma ray sources rotate around the patient. The higher imaging resolution and real-time visualization of the tumor’s shape and location can allow careful coordination of the three beams, protecting healthy tissue for more effective therapy. These are all examples of clinical technology that are currently being tested and developed. The issues of whether, how, and when to implement new technology depend upon where one wishes to be on the new technology adoption curve. Those who invest early in the process, the “early adopters,” may be able to carve out a market and attract new physicians and patients to the new technology and its early promise. The downside is that the new product is generally very costly, especially if it is one of a kind. Early adoption also may not provide enough time in operation to clearly understand the pros and cons of the new technology. The second phase of adoption, defined as the “early majority,” involves the emergence of competing vendors that have developed their own versions of the technology. This facilitates wider utilization and more competitive pricing. Differences in the new technology also emerge, offering more options for use. However, an early adopter may have already seized market share, making it harder to attract new business. The third phase, the “late majority,” adopt the technology before it becomes obsolete but after it has been thoroughly tested in the market and has become the standard of care. At this point, there are little distinguishing characteristics between vendors, so that price and standardization become the determining factors. The assessment and evaluation of a new technology always requires a strategic review, a financial analysis, and a carefully done and accurate business plan. · First, how does the new technology fit into the organization’s strategic plan? Will it enhance the achievement of specified goals? What physicians will be stakeholders and users of the new technology? How will it fit with other technology and competing demands for capital resources? · Second, what does the financial analysis show? What increase in volume is anticipated? What is the potential payor mix? What types of reimbursement are available? Will it add costs for patients on a diagnosis-related group reimbursement plan? What is the contribution margin once the initial capital expenditure is covered, and what is the time frame for a return on investment? · Third, what does the business plan reveal? Will it attract new physicians and more patients, and from where? Will it enhance elective procedure volume? What is the competitive advantage it brings, or what possible loss of business would it prevent? What market share of the affected patient population is anticipated? A word of caution: beware of vendors that offer to provide a business and financial analysis to “relieve you of the workload.” It is generally not wise to rely on vendor-provided analyses without strong validation of their assumptions from your own internal resources. The wise administrator always does his or her own analysis and review, looking at the new technology with a critical and analytical eye and resisting the temptation to acquire it just because it is new. The EMR The Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 mandates that hospitals and health care entities move to an EMR by 2015. While many hospitals have components of an EMR, not many have the full package implemented and in place, which includes the clinical documentation and the computerized physician order entry modules. There are a large number of vendors competing for the business, and the selection of an EMR product is very difficult. When preparing for the move to an EMR, there are several steps to take: 1. Develop clear criteria for success. What does your organization expect the EMR to accomplish for you? How will you know if that is achieved once you implement it? How much of the health care continuum will be included in your EMR (physician offices, hospital entities, outpatient services, etc.)? Many organizations may develop an EMR with the belief that it will save staff time and result in fewer positions and staff costs. In fact, the opposite has been shown to be true. Most EMR implementations take more time than paper and pencil approaches for the data entry. The value of an EMR may well be in its ability to translate data into workable information via reports. If you want to know the number of foley catheters that are in patients for more than two days, a good EMR can generate a report for you. Be sure that your criteria for success are achievable, measurable, and make strategic sense for your organization. Representatives of all stakeholder groups should be involved in developing these criteria. 2. Use due diligence in selecting your product and vendor. This is a hotly competitive market among vendors of various EMR software products. The vendors will promise a great deal in order to make the final cut and selection. It is essential that you thoroughly evaluate the abilities of each product as it fits your strategic goals, your criteria for success, operations in each affected department, functionality, reporting capability, ease of use, and robustness of the product. A smart way to proceed is to sit through the vendor presentations, take careful notes, and then go talk to hospitals that have used that vendor’s product. You need to understand how the product will be used and whether all the components and departments that will use it are integrated (built into the original software platform) or interfaced (requires the build of a software bridge between computer systems). An EMR that does not have an integral surgical suite package would be at a significant disadvantage in the competitive world, for example. 3. Learn from other hospitals that use the software platform you are considering. You cannot go to too many hospitals to see an EMR in action. It is a mistake to go to only one or two and think that you have seen it all. Multiple visits will show multiple different ways to use the system and the problems that come with it. If you visit, talk to the users in the departments about their feelings regarding the system, how easy it is to use, how it changed their work flow and operations, and what issues they see with it. These visits can help you avoid a very expensive mistake. Having said that, keep in mind that there is no perfect system and that these systems are extremely complex. It is unrealistic to believe the vendor when they tell you that it will be a smooth and organized implementation with no problems, because there are always problems. The vendor’s commitment to help and support during and after the implementation is critical to success. 4. Above all, do not leave any stakeholder group out of the selection and design, especially physicians. Many physicians look with skepticism on the advent of an EMR, and some have likely had less than great experiences with it at other hospitals or in their own practices. It is absolutely imperative that physicians and other key stakeholders, such as staff, are deeply involved in the selection, design, implementation, and monitoring of the EMR system and associated processes. Failure to do this step almost always guarantees a less than optimal result and generally results in a complete failure. 5. Budget appropriately. The wise health care executive will realize up front that the selection, design, and implementation of an EMR will cost millions of dollars. The software costs alone can run that much, and then one must plan for the hardware costs, data storage expenses, and data entry systems/computers. In addition, the planning and design teams can take months to a year to complete all the implementation planning, and the staff costs for participation can run into high six figure amounts. It is always a good idea to ask the hospitals where you are observing their usage to tell you what their total EMR costs were, at least in ballpark figures. The EMR requires a huge amount of resource commitment in planning, selection, due diligence, implementation, and ongoing monitoring. This is one of the decisions and change processes that must go correctly, since so much is at stake. Conclusion New technology has had, and will continue to have, lasting impacts on the health care delivery system and its individual providers and components. Clinical technology continues to pour out of the research and development pipeline, and new drugs, new procedures, and new therapies will be a part of the health care landscape for decades to come. It is new, exciting, and very expensive. Careful analysis and evaluation is an essential part of selecting what is useful and appropriate for a health care entity and avoiding the high cost flash in the pan that does not me

Interview Health Care Professional

1) Interview a health care leader about a new technology he or she selected, planned for, and implemented.

2) Write a paper of 1,000–1,200 words, from your perspective, on how that process occurred, what happened, what the leader would do again, and what mistakes he or she may have made.

3) Refer to the assigned readings to incorporate specific examples and details into your paper.

4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

1. Definition, Structure, Content, Use and Impacts of Electronic Health Records: A Review of the Research Literature

Read “Definition, Structure, Content, Use and Impacts of Electronic Health Records: A Review of the Research Literature” by Häyrinen, Saranto, and Nykänen, from the International Journal of Medical Informatics (2008).

http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2007.09.001

2. The Barriers to Electronic Medical Record Systems and How To Overcome Them

Read “The Barriers to Electronic Medical Record Systems and How To Overcome Them” by McDonald, from the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (1997).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC61236/

The Impact of Technology on Clinical and IT Systems

Introduction

One of the factors driving change in the health care delivery system is the rapidly evolving technology that emerges from research and development. Emerging technologies create rapid and profound change in the delivery system and may have drastic financial impacts. However, adapting new technologies without a clear understanding of what they can do for and to the system is never a good idea. They must be evaluated for their abilities to enhance the quality of care, along with their capacity to drive new revenue in a procedure-based delivery system. Finally, the cost of new technology is highly correlated with how new it is, and whether it is a stand-alone product with no competition. All of these factors combine to make it essential to do careful business and clinical analyses prior to committing to even the most appealing new technology.

In this module, we will examine two types of new technology: clinical applications and the electronic medical record (EMR).

Clinical Technology

In the realm of clinical technology, there are numerous subgroups. In selected subgroups, we will explore examples of new technology that is in the research and development pipeline.

Cardiovascular

The underlying theme of technology in cardiovascular care is the shift from significantly invasive approaches, such as open cardiac bypass surgery requiring a split sterna surgical approach and the use of a heart lung machine to maintain the patient during surgery, toward minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques. Ultra-wide band radar devices allow the measurement of cardiac output, heart rate, heart rhythm, and patterns of blood flow without any invasion of the body. The device is roughly the size of a deck of cards and can be worn in a shirt pocket without leads or monitor pads. The use of this type of radar-based approach allows noninvasive monitoring without pain or limitation of movement by patients.

Another cardiovascular application is the use of bio-absorbable, drug-eluting stents to open coronary arteries. The old technology required a surgical intervention that involved removing an artery from another part of the body and suturing it to the blocked coronary artery to provide a bridge for blood to flow past the blockage. This generally required hours in the operating room, with a patient on a heart bypass machine, and several days to a week in the intensive care unit after surgery. This has been largely replaced by placing stents or coils in the coronary arteries to hold them open. This is done in the cardiac catheterization lab under sedation or light anesthesia and is accomplished by threading a catheter through the arm or leg vein up to the heart and into the artery. However, historically these types of stents could block up again. The newest technology involves placing a bio-absorbable stent that eventually melts into the arterial wall, along with the drug-eluting aspect, which prevents clot formation. While this is a significant improvement from the patient’s perspective, it also comes with a steep premium in cost, at least initially. Cardiac services have traditionally been among the most lucrative services for hospitals and physicians. However, the shift of services from inpatient to outpatient and the marked reductions expected in cardiac surgical volume result in a noticeable decline in patient admission days and overall cardiac revenue for the average hospital. Cardiac surgeons across the country are indicating decreases in volume of 20% to 30% in their patient load.

A brand new emerging technology is autologous cell therapy, in which a patient’s own heart muscle cells are cultured from their own adult stem cells and then placed back into the patient’s heart muscle. This process is in clinical trials at present, and if it works as expected, patients will have strengthened heart muscle without the fears of tissue rejection from organ transplants. It will also reduce the need for electromechanical pumps or a full heart transplant. This technology could potentially revolutionize cardiac health care.

Oncologic

With the growing rate of cancer diagnoses, oncologic care is an area rife with new technology. One new area with great promise is the use of radioactive trace markers to measure the effects of chemotherapy or radiation on tumor growth. Fluorothymidine is being studied as an imaging probe that measures tumor cell proliferation and response to therapies. The ability to do an early assessment of tumor growth and development should provide better outcomes for patients with cancer and reduced expenses from ineffective therapies.

Another new technology overcomes the problem of the blood-brain barrier, which prevents chemotherapeutic agents from penetrating the brain. The new technology, acoustic-enhanced drug delivery, uses focused ultrasound to reverse the blocking effects of the blood-brain barrier by agitating the brain tissue to enhance its permeability. This also improves the tumor’s uptake of the drug, with a quicker and more effective response to the chemotherapy.

Gastrointestinal (GI)

Digestive disorders have been diagnosed for years through endoscopy. However, this process requires sedation of the patient. Video capsule technology appeared in 2001, but its diagnostic capability was limited, since the capsule’s movement was not controllable. The newest technology is a robotic capsule that allows the physician to control the movement and orientation of the capsule for better visualization of the GI tract. Once the capsule is positioned properly, it can perform a robotic biopsy or administer a treatment to a specific area with a noninvasive approach.

Diagnostic Imaging

There are numerous technologies that are emerging in the field of diagnostic imaging. Over the last five years, computed tomography (CT) scans have become three dimensional and capable of imaging thinner slices, giving much greater visual resolution. However, increases in CT imaging have prompted rising concerns about radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which creates images through a magnetic field, is a safer option when radiation exposure is a concern. MRIs can also visualize soft tissue in a way that CT scans cannot. A new technology based on the MRI platform is MRI-guided radiation therapy for tumors. In this approach, the MRI imaging system is combined with three gamma ray sources, which function together as a large robot. The patient is positioned between two magnets, and the gamma ray sources rotate around the patient. The higher imaging resolution and real-time visualization of the tumor’s shape and location can allow careful coordination of the three beams, protecting healthy tissue for more effective therapy.

These are all examples of clinical technology that are currently being tested and developed. The issues of whether, how, and when to implement new technology depend upon where one wishes to be on the new technology adoption curve. Those who invest early in the process, the “early adopters,” may be able to carve out a market and attract new physicians and patients to the new technology and its early promise. The downside is that the new product is generally very costly, especially if it is one of a kind. Early adoption also may not provide enough time in operation to clearly understand the pros and cons of the new technology. The second phase of adoption, defined as the “early majority,” involves the emergence of competing vendors that have developed their own versions of the technology. This facilitates wider utilization and more competitive pricing. Differences in the new technology also emerge, offering more options for use. However, an early adopter may have already seized market share, making it harder to attract new business. The third phase, the “late majority,” adopt the technology before it becomes obsolete but after it has been thoroughly tested in the market and has become the standard of care. At this point, there are little distinguishing characteristics between vendors, so that price and standardization become the determining factors.

The assessment and evaluation of a new technology always requires a strategic review, a financial analysis, and a carefully done and accurate business plan.

· First, how does the new technology fit into the organization’s strategic plan? Will it enhance the achievement of specified goals? What physicians will be stakeholders and users of the new technology? How will it fit with other technology and competing demands for capital resources?

· Second, what does the financial analysis show? What increase in volume is anticipated? What is the potential payor mix? What types of reimbursement are available? Will it add costs for patients on a diagnosis-related group reimbursement plan? What is the contribution margin once the initial capital expenditure is covered, and what is the time frame for a return on investment?

· Third, what does the business plan reveal? Will it attract new physicians and more patients, and from where? Will it enhance elective procedure volume? What is the competitive advantage it brings, or what possible loss of business would it prevent? What market share of the affected patient population is anticipated?

A word of caution: beware of vendors that offer to provide a business and financial analysis to “relieve you of the workload.” It is generally not wise to rely on vendor-provided analyses without strong validation of their assumptions from your own internal resources. The wise administrator always does his or her own analysis and review, looking at the new technology with a critical and analytical eye and resisting the temptation to acquire it just because it is new.

The EMR

The Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 mandates that hospitals and health care entities move to an EMR by 2015. While many hospitals have components of an EMR, not many have the full package implemented and in place, which includes the clinical documentation and the computerized physician order entry modules. There are a large number of vendors competing for the business, and the selection of an EMR product is very difficult.

When preparing for the move to an EMR, there are several steps to take:

1. Develop clear criteria for success. What does your organization expect the EMR to accomplish for you? How will you know if that is achieved once you implement it? How much of the health care continuum will be included in your EMR (physician offices, hospital entities, outpatient services, etc.)? Many organizations may develop an EMR with the belief that it will save staff time and result in fewer positions and staff costs. In fact, the opposite has been shown to be true. Most EMR implementations take more time than paper and pencil approaches for the data entry. The value of an EMR may well be in its ability to translate data into workable information via reports. If you want to know the number of foley catheters that are in patients for more than two days, a good EMR can generate a report for you. Be sure that your criteria for success are achievable, measurable, and make strategic sense for your organization. Representatives of all stakeholder groups should be involved in developing these criteria.

2. Use due diligence in selecting your product and vendor. This is a hotly competitive market among vendors of various EMR software products. The vendors will promise a great deal in order to make the final cut and selection. It is essential that you thoroughly evaluate the abilities of each product as it fits your strategic goals, your criteria for success, operations in each affected department, functionality, reporting capability, ease of use, and robustness of the product. A smart way to proceed is to sit through the vendor presentations, take careful notes, and then go talk to hospitals that have used that vendor’s product. You need to understand how the product will be used and whether all the components and departments that will use it are integrated (built into the original software platform) or interfaced (requires the build of a software bridge between computer systems). An EMR that does not have an integral surgical suite package would be at a significant disadvantage in the competitive world, for example.

3. Learn from other hospitals that use the software platform you are considering. You cannot go to too many hospitals to see an EMR in action. It is a mistake to go to only one or two and think that you have seen it all. Multiple visits will show multiple different ways to use the system and the problems that come with it. If you visit, talk to the users in the departments about their feelings regarding the system, how easy it is to use, how it changed their work flow and operations, and what issues they see with it. These visits can help you avoid a very expensive mistake. Having said that, keep in mind that there is no perfect system and that these systems are extremely complex. It is unrealistic to believe the vendor when they tell you that it will be a smooth and organized implementation with no problems, because there are always problems. The vendor’s commitment to help and support during and after the implementation is critical to success.

4. Above all, do not leave any stakeholder group out of the selection and design, especially physicians. Many physicians look with skepticism on the advent of an EMR, and some have likely had less than great experiences with it at other hospitals or in their own practices. It is absolutely imperative that physicians and other key stakeholders, such as staff, are deeply involved in the selection, design, implementation, and monitoring of the EMR system and associated processes. Failure to do this step almost always guarantees a less than optimal result and generally results in a complete failure.

5. Budget appropriately. The wise health care executive will realize up front that the selection, design, and implementation of an EMR will cost millions of dollars. The software costs alone can run that much, and then one must plan for the hardware costs, data storage expenses, and data entry systems/computers. In addition, the planning and design teams can take months to a year to complete all the implementation planning, and the staff costs for participation can run into high six figure amounts. It is always a good idea to ask the hospitals where you are observing their usage to tell you what their total EMR costs were, at least in ballpark figures.

The EMR requires a huge amount of resource commitment in planning, selection, due diligence, implementation, and ongoing monitoring. This is one of the decisions and change processes that must go correctly, since so much is at stake.

Conclusion

New technology has had, and will continue to have, lasting impacts on the health care delivery system and its individual providers and components. Clinical technology continues to pour out of the research and development pipeline, and new drugs, new procedures, and new therapies will be a part of the health care landscape for decades to come. It is new, exciting, and very expensive. Careful analysis and evaluation is an essential part of selecting what is useful and appropriate for a health care entity and avoiding the high cost flash in the pan that does not me